Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)

WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN LIBYA: CHALLENGES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

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mjsa.02.2017.02.05

ABSTRACT

WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN LIBYA: CHALLENGES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Jauda R. Jouda Hamad, Marlia M. Hanafiah, Wan Zuhairi W. Yaakob

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.02.2017.02.05

Water shortage or scarcity is becoming a major concern for many nations across the world. The situation is worsened by rapid urbanization and population growth in developing countries, thus increase competition for water used for irrigated agriculture. Various efforts have been made by the authorities in the developing countries to provide sufficient water and improve the quality of water resources. Yet, there are still many developing countries facing shortages of water for domestic and agricultural purposes, especially during the dry months of the year. Libya is one of the Northern African countries that have been experiencing water shortages especially in urban areas. This paper aims to identify the current situation and constraints of water resources management in Libya. The latter part is devoted to the solutions and recommendations at individual, community, state and government levels that can help solving the water problems in Libya. A number of previous studies on the water resources management and challenges perceived by both developed and developing countries were critically reviewed. It was found that water scarcity in developing countries is expected to be worsen as their population are expected to increase gradually year by year and it can be summarized from the reviewed previous studies that lack of government planning, industrial and human wastes along with government intervention and mismanaging water resources are some of the critical constraints towards achieving sustainable management in most of the countries including Libya. Potential solutions such as improving supply demand and good quality management of water resources must be taken into consideration. In addition, active participation from the local residents by enhancing awareness amongst them would be one of the supportive strategies to minimize the constraints. Sustainable economic and environmental management together with efficient use of water is required to conserve our clean water supply.

Pages 02-05
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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mjsa.02.2017.01

ABSTRACT

ELECTRICAL STIMULATION FOR EGGS AND SEMEN ON TACHYPLEUS TRIDENTATUS COLLECTED FROM LOCAL RESTAURANTS IN HONG KONG

Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Yh Cheung, Oy Lam, Sc Lun, Ch Pang, Kw Wu, Wk Leung

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.02.2017.01

The major threats of horseshoe crabs in Hong Kong include (1) coastal development, whichdestroys the sprawling grounds of horseshoe crabs; and (2) fisheries, which reduces its populationin the wild directly. Artificial breeding of juvenile horseshoe crabs for wild release is therefore considered as one of the means to raise the population of this species.

Pages 01
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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mjsa.01.2017.19.22

ABSTRACT

PARTICIPATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS AND INTERACTIONS. A CASE STUDY OF THE MANGLARALTO COASTAL AQUIFER, SANTA ELENA-ECUADOR

Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: G. Herrera-Franco; T. Gavín-Quinchuelaa; N. Alvarado-Macancelaa; P. Carrión-Mero

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.01.2017.19.22

Socio-ecological dynamics describe forms of interaction between society and ecosystems, through social, economic and ecological processes that influence the state of natural resources. The aim of this paper is to understand the functioning of the Manglaralto Socio-Ecological System through a participatory modeling method called PARDI (Problem, Actors, Resources, Dynamics and Interactions), in order to determine possible solutions for sustainability of groundwater resources. The sustainable management of the Manglaralto Coastal Aquifer has been identified as the problem. The actors involved in the socio-ecological dynamics of the Manglaralto Coastal Aquifer are the Manglaralto Regional Drinking Water Management Board as manager; as well as users, such as the population of rural communities and economic activities, highlighting the tourism activity. The key resources identified were rainfalls, forested areas and surface waters, which are considered the most relevant recharge sources of the coastal aquifer. The main dynamics and interactions that have directly intervened in the operation of the aquifer are: the growing water demand of 1,179.30% during the period 2005-2015 and the increase of 80.85% in the construction of urbanized areas for housing and tourist activities during the period 2006-2013. Currently, there are thirteen water wells; considered as the limit for the coastal aquifer. The Manglaralto Coastal Aquifer has dropped to 32.30% of its capacity, so there are schedules of water supply as a regulatory measure for the sustainability of the aquifer. Through in a participatory process between the actors involved, researchers and universities, possible collectively acceptable solutions have been identified for a first stage. These solutions are: the water repression through the construction of river tapes, the incentive for reforestation in livestock areas, a desalination plant and the nomination of the Manglaralto Coastal Aquifer as Heritage of Ecuador.

Pages 19-22
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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mjsa.01.2017.15.18

ABSTRACT

Vermicomposting of Flower Waste: Optimization of Maturity Parameter by Response Surface Methodology

Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Dayanand Sharma, Kunwar D. Yadav

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.01.2017.15.18

In the present study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to develop an approach for the optimization of quantity of flower waste and cow dung to determine maturity during the vermicomposting of flower waste. The effect of maturity parameters such as C:N ratio, Germination index and CO2 evolution rate were studied using central composite design (CCD). Eisenia foetida was used in different combination of flower waste and cow dung during the vermicomposting of flower waste. Results of study showed significant effect of both variables and their interactions with process parameters during vermicomposting process. The optimum results obtained from response surface methodology was nearly equal between predicted and experimental analysis. The optimum variation of process parameter was pH 7.07-7.12, electrical conductivity 3.28 -3.42 mS/cm, total organic carbon 33.72-34.06%, C: N ratio 14-15, phosphorous 4.95-5.21 g/kg and potassium 13.99-14.31 g/kg. The results suggest that compost obtained from the vermicomposting of flower waste and cow dung contains sodium, potassium and phosphorous which are beneficial for the plant growth. Flower waste compost is suitable for organic manure which reduces the quantity of waste by converting into valuable products.

Pages 15-18
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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mjsa.01.2017.11.14

ABSTRACT

Biomonitoring of Wetland Using Macrophytes and Macroinvertebrates

Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Bajracharya Daya, Krishna Pant

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.01.2017.11.14

Bio-monitoring is the use of biological responses to assess changes in the environment. Biological monitoring is considered to provide an integrated approach to assess water and overall environmental quality. The ultimate objective of bio-monitoring in the Rampur Ghol is to ensure that local resource users in the water sector to apply biodiversity friendly management practices within their day to day activities. In this research macro invertebrates are used to classify the Rampur Ghol into different Water Quality Classes based on Saprobic Water Quality Classification (SWQC) approach. Rampur Ghol was selected as research site for biological monitoring, situated in Chitwan district, Mangalpur VDC Ward No. 2. Macrophytes were collected from both the aquatic habitat and buffer zone of the Rampur Ghol in seasonal basis using fixed quadrate of 1×1m2 . Benthic macro-invertebrates were sampled by using bin sampler and grab sampler and then analysed. During study period altogether 14 families belonging to 10 orders of aquatic macro-invertebrate were found in dry season and 18 families belonging to 12 orders of aquatic macro-invertebrates were found in rainy season. Accessing the Biotic Index of macro-invertebrates, it was found that eight sites fall in water quality class III and site 7 and site 10 were rated class II-III and class III-IV respectively in dry season. Similarly, seven sites were rated water quality class III and three sites were rated water quality class II-III in rainy season. Study of the macrophytes in site 7, 8 and 10 concluded that the macrophytes from sites 8 and 10 showed high degree of organic pollution and showed the dominance of Pistia stratiotes throughout the study, which is considered to be indicator of organic pollution. High anthropogenic activities show fluctuation of water quality in Rampur Ghol. It can be concluded that humans are the key factor for degrading the Ghol.

Pages 11-14
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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mjsa.01.2017.08.10

ABSTRACT

Capacity of black soldier fly and house fly larvae in treating the wasted rice in Malaysia.

Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Song-Quan Ong, Bui-Bui Lee, Geok-Pin Tan and Saravanan A/L Maniam

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.01.2017.08.10

Rice is the major source of carbohydrate in the world and also the common composition in avoidable food waste. Due to the rich food culture in Malaysia, different pretreated rice waste is generated and the pretreat-component may affect the outcome in managing the rice waste using fly larvae. In this study, black soldier fly larvae (BSFL; Hermetia illucens) and house fly larvae (HFL; Musca domestica) are introduced to four types of rice waste: 1) steamed white rice (WR), 2) rice with curry (CR), 3) rice with coconut milk (CCR), and 4) fried rice (FR). The reduction rate of rice waste and larval survival rate, and nutrient analysis were measured by prepupal stages of both fly larvae. BSFL showed no significant difference in the reduction for four types of rice wastes (p= 0.28) and significantly higher survival rate than HFL for the CR and CCR wastes; indicating better tolerant to the feeding substrate. Although BSFL has significantly gre ater reduction rate (3.03 – 3.26 g /10 larvae/ day) than HFL, but in a fixed timeframe (20-25 days) four batches of HFL were generated and therefore having significantly more mass production than BSFL (500g of substrates generating 11.96g of BSFL but 22.62g of HFL). Rice waste management using fly larvae is effective subjected to the needs and purpose; BSFL is more adaptive to different types of rice waste and high in fat content, whereas HFL is sensitive to the waste but high in protein content.
Pages 8-10
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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mjsa.01.2017.04.07

ABSTRACT

Water Requirements for Various Crops And Impact Of Irrigation In Barind Area

Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Dr. Md. Kumruzzaman, Anirban Sarker

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.01.2017.04.07

In this paper successive depletion of groundwater level with expansion of ground water irrigation in Barind Tract has been discussed from 1985 to 2015. Rajshahi is a city in western Bangladesh. It is located in the north-west part of the country and situated on the northern banks of the river Padma. After starting of groundwater irrigation in Bangladesh, it spread rapidly all over the country, and about 80% of agricultural land is now supplied irrigation from groundwater. This study was conducted to estimate the Consumptive use and Crop Irrigation Requirement for various crops like Amon(rice), Boro(rice), Wheat and Potato. Blaney-Criddle Method was used in this study. In this study, data was collected from the zonal office of Barind Multipurpose Development Authority (BMDA), Rajshahi and Bangladesh Meteorological Department, Meteorological complex, Green Road, Dhaka. From the data analysis, the maximum value of consumptive use is 27.88 cm in the month of April, 1989 and minimum value of consumptive use is 2.02 cm in the month of February, 2011. The maximum value of Crop Irrigation Requirement is 21.66 cm in 1987
Pages 4-7
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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mjsa.01.2017.01.03

ABSTRACT

Growth of Chenopodium quiona Wild under Naturally Salt Affected Soils

Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Muhammad Arshadullah, Muhammad Suhaib, RaheelBaber, Malik Usama, Badar-uz-Zaman, Imdad Ali Mahmood1and Syed, Ishtiaq Hyder

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.01.2017.01.03

Salinity and sodicity is today one of the most shocking threat in the irrigated agriculture. Mostly this is an abiotic strain that influences germination and plant growth. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Wild.) has garnered much attention in recent years because it is an excellent source of plant-based protein and is highly tolerance of soil salinity and sodicity. Protein content in most quinoa accessions has been reported to range from 12 to 17%, depending on variety, environment, and input sit is traditionally called the mother of grains having the potential to habitat under high saline sodic conditions environment. The aim of the present protocol was to investigate the germination and growth of quinoa plant under different naturally salt affected soils. Quiona weeds were sown in different salt affected soils comparing with a normal soil. A pot experiment was planned using randomized complete block design with three replicates. Non- significant results regarding germination among different naturally salt affected and normal soils was determined However germination percentage was reduced to 66.8 % by soil5 having (SAR= 37.2). In other words Quinoa seeds were germinated up to (SAR= 37.2). Results of Quinoa plant height, fresh weight, and dry weight after two weeks were significantly affected by different naturally salt affected and normal soils. This study revealed the quiona growth was inversely proportional to the sodium absorption ratio. Reduction in growth parameters was associated with increasing trend of SAR due to the presence of excessive salts in plant tissues.
Pages 1-3
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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