Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)

EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF MICRONUTRIENT (ZINC AND BORON) IN FLOWERING AND FRUIT SETTING OF MANDARIN (CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO) IN DAILEKH, NEPAL

mjsa.02.2020.94.98

ABSTRACT

EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF MICRONUTRIENT (ZINC AND BORON) IN FLOWERING AND FRUIT SETTING OF MANDARIN (CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO) IN DAILEKH, NEPAL

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Om Kala Ruchal, Subodh Raj Pandey, Reja Regmi, Rajendra Regmi, Bishnu Bahadur Magrati

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.02.2020.94.98

A research was conducted in PM-AMP, Project Implementation Unit, Citrus Zone, Dailekh during the spring season 2019 to find out the effect of foliar application of micronutrient in flowering and fruit setting of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in Dailekh, Nepal. The experiment was laid out in one factor randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five treatments and four replications. The treatments consist of foliar application of sole and combined application of Zinc and Boron namely: control (water spray), 0.15% Zn, 0.04% B, 0.1% Zn + 0.02% B and 0.05% Zn + 0.04% B. Twenty trees of same age and height were chosen from the north-facing slope. The soil of research orchard was sandy loamy. The solution for spray was made using standard procedures. Foliar application of the micronutrients was done twice, the first application was done before 45 days of the flowering and second application was done after 2 days of full bloom. The data was first entered in MS excel and R-stat was used for further analysis of the parameters. The results revealed that the different combination of micronutrient significantly influenced flowering, fruit setting percentage and the fruit drop percentage. The application of either Boron or Zinc or the combination of both were effective for enhancing flowering and fruit set as well as reducing the fruit drop in mandarin.
Pages 94-98
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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mjsa.02.2020.86.93

ABSTRACT

BIOCHAR AS A FEED ADDITIVE FOR IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF FARM ANIMALS

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Emanuel Joel Lao, Ernest Rashid Mbega

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.02.2020.86.93

Biochar, also known as biomass-derived char or charcoal is a dark/black carbonaceous material generated from the pyrolysis process under temperature averagely 700 0C and low oxygen levels. Depending on the intended objectives and conditions of the pyrolysis, the biochar, syngas and bio-oils are the three primary products generated. The quality of biochar is a function of its primary biomass source, residence time and temperature during pyrolysis which in turn results in variations of its physicochemical characteristics such as porosity, carbon content, elemental composition, surface area, retention capacity, and overall applications. The physical and chemical activation techniques to produce the activated charcoal is often done to improve the effectiveness of these carbonaceous materials. The biochar has broadly been used globally in agro-environmental management including in livestock production. Its inclusion at 1 – 3 % of DM of animal feed rations have been studied to improve health conditions and performance of farm animals such as weight gain, immunity response, feed intake, feed conversion rates, carcass characteristics and overall quality of animal products. The mechanisms associated with the beneficial impacts rely on adsorption ability of these materials in detoxifying the mycotoxins in feed, regulating plant-produced toxins, having a high affinity to pollutants as well as improvement of the beneficial microbial populations in animals’ gastrointestinal tract. However, the current literature indicates there is still a need for more investigation on the effectiveness of biochar in animal production due to either limited knowledge or contrasting findings reported. Also, there are imperative challenges which need to be addressed such as safety standards, specificity, potential contamination, affordability, and level of awareness by farmers who are end-users of biochar and its products.
Pages 86-93
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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mjsa.02.2020.81.85

ABSTRACT

EFFECT OF VARIOUS ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON SEEDLING HEALTH AND VIGOUR OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF CUCUMBER IN RAUTAHAT CONDITION

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Abishkar Khatiwada, Pragya Adhikari

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.02.2020.81.85

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is one of the most popular vegetable crop of cucurbitaceae family. The experiment was laid out as 4×2 factorial Completely Randomized Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatment consisted of two cucumber varieties (Dynasty and Malini) and different types of Organic Fertilizers namely (Peat moss, Vermicompost, Trichocompost and bare soil). Seedlings were raised on plastic pots inside a plastic tunnel with respective treatment and randomization of replication was done. Data analaysis was done using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) using GENSTAT. The result of the experiment indicated that trichocompost had significantly higher germination index(23.41) being statistically at par with peatmoss(22.76), greater number of leaves(3.9), dry root weight(0.8857g), dry shoot weight(1.647g), and lowest damping off incidence at 7DAS(1.567%), 11DAS(3.75%) and 15 DAS(4.58%). Peatmoss had higher germination (92.64%) being statistically at par with trichocompost (91.74%), larger leaf width(6.152cm) being at par with vermicompost(6.160cm) and trichocompost(6.023cm), higher fresh weight (23.67g) being at par with vermicomost(22g) and trichocompost(21.67g), higher vigor index(2320) and longer shoot length(7.980cm) being at par with trichocompost(7.853cm). Similarly control had higher root to shoot length ratio(2.977). Also, variety malini was found to be superior in all observed parameters except damping off. Thus it is suggested to use malini as a variety and trichocompost as a potting media to raise seedlings of cucumber in rautahat condition for better results.
Pages 81-85
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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mjsa.02.2020.75.80

ABSTRACT

THE MINERAL NITROGEN DISTRIBUTION FROM THE COMBINED FREE-RANGE PIG FARMING AND ENERGY CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEM

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Emanuel Joel Lao, Uffe Jørgensen

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.02.2020.75.80

Keeping pigs in the outdoor pasture convey a high risk of environmental pollution through nitrate leaching. Integrating grassland based free-range pigs with energy crops has been proposed as an alternative approach to reduce pollution. This study investigated the Nmin distribution and potential NO3-N leaching at various soil depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-100 cm) and distances (0.5, 2.5, 4.5, 6.5 and 9.5) from willow trees in the lactating sows’ paddocks. The results observed the highest levels of Nmin close to the huts and adjacent to feed troughs and the lowest Nmin levels close to the willow trees with a 1 m soil depth. For soil water analysis, the nitrate leaching as expected was the highest near the huts with an average of 37 mg NO3-N/liter followed by 28 Mg NO3-N/liter at 6.5 m with the lowest levels close to willow trees. The lowest NO3-N leaching around willow zone could be subjected to high water and nutrients uptake by trees. The 9.5 m close to feeders had the low leaching which could be due to low NO3-N as NH4-N dominated with 90% of the total Nmin with about 79% of this being in topsoil. Therefore, with a long growing season and deep root system of energy crops, the paddock design should maximize the trees uptake potential near this zone as pigs are known to have high excretion activities near shelter zones. As a result, a substantial N loss through nitrate leaching could be minimized.
Pages 75-80
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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mjsa.02.2020.71.74

ABSTRACT

MANAGEMENT OF PURPLE BLOTCH COMPLEX OF ONION (ALLIUM CEPA CV RED CREOLE) UNDER FIELD CONDITION IN RUKUM-WEST, NEPAL

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Nisha Paneru, Pragya Adhikari, Puja Tandan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.02.2020.71.74

A field experiment was conducted in Chaurjahari Municipality, Rukum-west, Nepal during the rabi season of 2019 to study the management of purple blotch complex of onion through chemicals and bio fungicides. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications of each treatment. Six different chemical fungicides; Hexaconazole, Tebuconazole, Mancozeb+Cymoxanil, Dimethomorph, Chlorothalonil, Carbendazim and one biological fungicides Trichoderma were evaluated in field condition against Alternaria porri and Stemphylium vesicarium for effective control of purple blotch complex. The fungicides were spread in fortnight interval and data were collected on biometric parameters like plant height, number of umbel stalk, umbel diameter; yield contributing characters like thousand seed weight and yield of onion. Likewise, data on disease incidence and disease severity were also recorded. Hexaconazole and Mancozeb + Cymoxanil were proved to be best in controlling this complex with the Percent Disease Control (PDC) of 84.45 percent and 80.00 percent respectively. The highest yield 878.7 kg/ha and thousand seed weight 3.72gm were recorded from Hexaconazole treated plot followed by Mancozeb + Cymoxanil with yield and thousand seed weight of 878.3kg/ha and 3.64gm respectively. The economic analysis of fungicides was also done where Hexaconazole at 0.1 percent concentration was found most economic with the Benefit Cost ratio of 3.02. Similarly, the study of weather parameter in relationship to disease occurrence was done, the coefficient of multiple determinants (R2) obtained was 0.7858 indicating 78.58 percent of variation in purple blotch development explained by the different weather parameter under study.
Pages 71-74
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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mjsa.02.2020.66.70

ABSTRACT

EFFECT OF VARIABLE RATE APPLICATION ON RICE LEAVES BURN AND CHLOROSIS IN SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Muhammad Nurfaiz Abd. Kharim, Aimrun Wayayok, Ahmad Fikri Abdullah, Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.02.2020.66.70

Both nitrogen deficiency and over-fertilization result in rice leaf damage and effect on yield production. Insufficient nitrogen supply gives raise to yellow leaves, whereas spraying too high concentrations of fertilizers can be recognized by leaf burn. This study used variable rate application (VRA) of organic foliar fertilization to fertilize the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) cultivation without application of granular fertilizer and used Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) chlorophyll meter as a tool to measure chlorophyll-nitrogen content for fertilizer calculation. Based on a greenhouse experiment the effect of nitrogen regime on rice leaves damage was assessed. The experiment consisted of four nitrogen regimes (50% fixed rate, 100% fixed rate,150% fixed rate and VRA) arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Experimental result showed that none of the treatments resulted in leaf burn, whereas chlorosis was observed for all the treatments. VRA had the lowest level of chlorosis with low supplied of nitrogen compared to uniform treatments. Application of organic liquid fertilizer in variable rate form and using SPAD chlorophyll meter able to help to diagnose accurately the nitrogen content in the rice leaves for fertilizer application and capable to reduce chlorosis effect on the rice leaves.
Pages 66-70
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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mjsa.02.2020.59.65

ABSTRACT

ECO-FRIENDLY MANAGEMENT OF RICE YELLOW STEM BORER, SCIRPOPHAGA INCERTULUS (PYRALIDAE: LEPIDOPTERA) THROUGH REDUCING RISK OF INSECTICIDES

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Md. Mahfujur Rahman, Mahbuba Jahan, Khandakar Shariful Islam, Saleh Mohammad Adnan, Md. Salahuddin, Ahasanul Hoque , Majharul Islam

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.02.2020.59.65

A study was conducted during the period of January to July, 2012 in the Entomology Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh to manage the Yellow Stem Borer (YSB) of rice eco-friendly following the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications using the rice variety TN1. To keep in view this point, three insecticides viz. Dursban 20 EC, Convoy 25 EC, Belt 24 WG and three botanical extracts viz. Neem, Tobacco, Karanja extracts were used to compare their effectiveness against Yellow Stem Borer (YSB),Scirpophaga incertulus and also against natural enemies of Yellow Stem Borer (YSB) as Yellow Stem Borer (YSB),Scirpophaga incertulus causes dead heart and white head symptoms at vegetative and reproductive stage of rice respectively, the number of dead heart and white head symptoms were counted at different time interval viz. 7, 15, 21 days after spraying (DAS) to assess the effectiveness of the treatments. The chemicals and botanicals caused significant difference in their effects against Yellow Stem Borer (YSB). Among the chemicals Dursban 20 EC caused highest reduction in dead heart and white head symptoms and in case of botanicals Neem extracts caused highest reduction in the symptoms. The chemicals and botanicals were also evaluated for their side effects on natural enemies of rice. The botanicals were found less harmful than insecticides. Natural enemies like Lady Bird Beetle and Spider were abundant in the Neem extract sprayed rice field after several weeks of its application. The insecticides and botanicals reduced the infestation of Yellow Stem Borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulus and thereby significantly influenced the yield performance of rice. Dursban 20 EC treated plot showed highest yield (1.80 Kg/ plot) and Neem extract treated plot showed the yield 1.40 Kg/ plot. Considering the efficacy and eco-friendly nature of Neem extracts it could be considered as an effective botanicals in successful management of the pest Yellow Stem Borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulus of rice.
Pages 59-65
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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mjsa.02.2020.54.58

ABSTRACT

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT MULCHING ON YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF POTATO IN DADELDHURA DISTRICT, NEPAL

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Santosh Bharati, Binod Joshi, Roshan Dhakal, Sushma Paneru, Shiva Chandra Dhakal, Khem Raj Joshi

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.02.2020.54.58

A study on “Effect of different mulching materials on yield and yield attributes of potato in Dadeldhura, District” was conducted from March to June, 2019 in Tadibata, the commanding area of potato superzone, Dadeldhura to detect the effective mulching materials for potato. Lack of irrigation and labor shortage along with high weed infestation were the problem found in the potato production in farmers level .To find out the efficiency of different mulching materials, a field experiment was conducted in RCBD design with five treatments: T1: Control, T2: Saw dust, T3: Rice straw, T4: Black plastic and T5: Rice husk and were replicated four times to find the best mulching materials that can help the farmers to improve their production practice. The data on plant height, aerial stem number, canopy and number of leaves were taken at 45, 60 and 75 days after planting (DAP) and the data on grading, diameter, dry weight were taken after harvesting of potato. After the data collection, data entry was done is MS- Excel and analysis was done by using R-studio software. From the experiment it was found that the highest tuber yield was obtained in black plastic (3.33 kg/m2) which was followed by rice straw (2.74 kg/m2) , saw dust (2.63 kg/m2), rice husk (2.55kg/m2) and lowest tuber yield was obtained in control condition (2.39 kg/m2). Similarly, the soil temperature was influenced by the use of mulching material as compared to the bare soil with highest soil temperature being recorded in black plastic and lowest recorded in control condition. In case of economics, the highest B: C ratio was found in black plastic (2.01) and minimum found in rice husk (1.64). Thus, black plastic is the most effective mulching material for the high production of potato in Dadeldhura.
Pages 54-58
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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mjsa.02.2020.49.53

ABSTRACT

STUDY OF IMPROVED MANDARIN (Citrus Reticulate Blanco) ORCHARDMANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN MID HILLS OF GANDAKI PROVINCE, NEPAL

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Sarmila Belbase, Anisha Tiwari, Suraksha Baral, Sarita Banjade, Divya Pandey

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.02.2020.49.53

A survey was carried out to collect information regarding orchard management practices from mandarin growers of mid hills of Gandaki province by taking representative sample size of 80, 25 each from Beni Municipality and Jaljala Rural Municipality and 30 from Kathekhola Rural Municipality of Myagdi,Parbat and Baglung respectively. Purposive selection of site was done, and sampling procedure was simple random sampling technique. Descriptive statistical tools, chi-square test and t-test were used to analyze the data. The study was carried out to know level of adoption of improved orchard management practices, relation between socio-economic characters and adoption of technology and to identify the constraints perceived by farmers during adoption. From the study it was found that majority of the respondents of mandarin growers were male, middle aged, had medium sized family, had medium farm size, most of them are literate and agriculture was the primary source of income. Majority of farmers had taken training. Most of the respondents were in frequent contact with extension agent seeking the required information. Out of major ten improved management practices, majority of respondents had adopted training and pruning while least adopted practices were micronutrient application. Majority of respondents had low adoption on recommended management practices. Gender, education level, training, land holding size, contact with extension agent had significant association with adoption. Major problems like irrigation, insect and disease, training, lack of labor and cost of input were encountered during the adoption of improved mandarin orchard management practices. It is recommended that, literacy program needed to be strengthened, training should be based on felt need and subsidy should be given to farmers to encourage them towards mandarin cultivation as well as adoption of improved orchard management practices.
Pages 49-53
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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mjsa.02.2020.44.48

ABSTRACT

EFFECT OF BIO-NEMATICIDE AND BAU-BIOFUNGICIDE AGAINST ROOT-KNOT (MELOIDOGYNE SPP.) OF SOYBEAN

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Mohammad Sharif Sarker, K. M. Mohiuddin, Laith Khalil Tawfeeq Al Ani, Mohamad Nazmul Hassan, Rojina Akter, Md. Sakhawat Hossain, Md. Niuz Morshed Khan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.02.2020.44.48

Meloidogyne spp. considered highly dangerous on soybeans. It is very difficult to find the suitable method for controlling without affecting on the environment. Therefore, in this study we used Four treatments with a newly developed Bio-nematicide, BAU-Biofungicide, Bio-nematicide + BAU-Biofungicide including control were tested against root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita) of two soybean varities (Sohag and BARI Soybean-5). The bio-agents were used as side dressing. Bio-nematicide in combination with BAU-Bio-fungicide showed the best performance with the highest length of shoot and root, fresh weight of shoot and root with nodules, weight of seeds and number of nodules per plant correspondingly with decreased number of galls and adult females of the nematode. Bio-nematicide and BAU-Biofungicide showed better performance in plant growth characters, yield of seeds and nodulation resulting in reduced galling and nematode development. BARI soybean-5 appeared with higher plant growth characters, nodulation and yield with reduced galling compared to variety Sohag. Positive response was observed with Bio-nematicide interacting with all the varieties of soybean. Negative correlation was found between gall numbers and all plants growth, nodulation and yield components. The combination between biological control agents is useful for the supporting and succeeding the biocontrol of Meloidogyne incognita. Thus, it is leading to save the environment from the residue of pesticides.
Pages 44-48
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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