Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)

THE GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS ARE INHIBITED BY CRUDE EXTRACTS OF ARGEMONE MEXICANA LEAVES AND ROOTS

mjsa.01.2024.09.14

ABSTRACT

THE GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS ARE INHIBITED BY CRUDE EXTRACTS OF ARGEMONE MEXICANA LEAVES AND ROOTS

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Fredrick Ojija, Hezron Timothy Mwakabona, Hadija Matimbwa

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.01.2024.09.14

The invasions of Argemone mexicana in sub–Saharan Africa’s natural habitats negatively affect biological diversity. We investigated A. mexicana’s suppressive effects on Phaseolus vulgaris seed germination (petri dish experiments) and seedling growth (pot experiments). Phaseolus vulgaris seeds and seedlings were treated with different A. mexicana leaf (AmL) and root (AmR) crude extract concentrations to study their suppressive effects on the test plant. The results revealed that AmL and AmR crude extract suppressed P. vulgaris seed germination and seedling growth, particularly at higher concentrations (70% and 100%). At these concentrations, the seed germination inhibition percentage was twice that at lower concentrations (25% and 50%). The number of seeds that germinated at higher concentrations was lower compared to those that germinated at lower concentrations. Correspondingly, seed germination was delayed at higher concentrations compared to lower ones and controls. Moreover, P. vulgaris seedling growth vigour was negatively affected as the growth parameters (fresh biomass, root lengths, stem diameters, and heights) under 75% and 100% concentrations of AmL and AmR were lower. Though this study’s findings revealed that A. mexicana crude extract reduced P. vulgaris germination and growth, further research is required to investigate the allelopathic effects of A. mexicana on other plant species.
Pages 09-14
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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mjsa.01.2024.01.08

ABSTRACT

EFFECT OF MULCHING AND POTASSIUM APPLICATION METHODS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF POTATO AT ROLPA, NEPAL

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Sanjeev Tumbapo, Sabin Sigdel, Muna Aryal, Aayush Aryal, Suman Dhakal

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.01.2024.01.08

A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of mulching and potassium application method on growth and yield parameters of potato at Rolpa, Nepal from February, 2022 to July, 2022. The experiment was laid out in 2 factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications consisting of 8 treatments. The variety used was Rolpa local. First treatment factor consisted of three mulching materials namely silver on black plastic, black plastic and plant residue including control plot whereas second treatment factor consist of two method of potassium application: split application and basal application of recommended dose. Days to 90% germination, plant height, number of leaves, and canopy diameter exhibited significant variations among the various mulching materials, while the method of potassium application showed no notable impact on these parameters. Notably, plastic mulches played a significant role in the germination rate, with potatoes sprouting 5-6 days earlier than the control group. However, all subsequent observations related to growth and yield parameters demonstrated significantly superior results in the case of silver on black plastic mulch. The silver on black plastic mulches, in particular, displayed a substantial influence, resulting in the highest tuber number, tuber weight, and tuber yield at 23.12, 62.16 gm, and 24.09 t/ha, respectively. Additionally, remarkable tuber characteristics, including circumference, diameter, and length, were recorded with silver on black plastic (14.20 cm, 4.74 cm, and 5.40 cm, respectively). Moreover, variations in tuber weight and total yield were observed among different potassium application methods, with the split application of potash yielding the highest total of 19.66 t/ha. The split application of potassium also produced the highest circumference (13.06 cm) and tuber diameter (4.07 cm), accompanied by a superior benefit-cost ratio of 2.65. Noteworthy was the highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.92 achieved with silver on black plastic mulch. Despite exploring the interaction effect between these two factors for both growth and yield parameters, no significant findings were observed. Consequently, it was concluded that silver on black plastic mulch combined with the split application method of potassium proved to be more effective for promoting growth and tuber yield, exhibiting a promising benefit-cost ratio
Pages 01-08
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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mjsa.02.2023.113.118

ABSTRACT

A SOUTH AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE ON HOME GARDENS: PROMOTING SUSTAINABILITY AND RESILIENCE POST COVID-19

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Delia Oosthuizen, Kuda Marumo-Ngwenya, Jeanette Emmerentia Kearney

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.02.2023.113.118

Home gardens are recognised globally and can address the challenges of food insecurity and malnutrition. However, climate change, infertile soil, reduction in freshwater supply and increasing demand for food, coupled with crisis pandemics, put further strain on food systems and society. The authors focused on a desktop review to understand the principles of home gardens and consolidate the suggestions provided in the literature to determine possible strategies for resilience and continuation of home gardens post-COVID-19 to ensure sustainability within rural households and communities within South Africa. Besides enhancing the food supply within each household, home gardens can improve family health, women empowerment, and possible individual economic benefits by selling excess food, which, in the bigger scope, contributes to the self-efficiency and sustainability of households and communities. The global pandemic has reinforced the strain on the societal issues within South Africa, namely unemployment, food supply and hunger. Recommendations from the literature reveal practical approaches towards educational material to better transfer skills amongst generations, provide better-quality seeds and promote the growth of nutrient-dense foods, such as indigenous foods.
Pages 113-118
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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mjsa.02.2023.104.112

ABSTRACT

MOLECULAR ISOLATION, SCREENING AND IDENTIFICATION OF HYDROCARBON DEGRADING FUNGI FROM OIL CONTAMINATED SOILS, KRI, IRAQ

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Tablo Abdulrahim Ahmed, Dilshad Ganjo.Ahmed

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.02.2023.104.112

This study aims to isolate and recognize (native/indigenous) hydrocarbon degrading fungal strains from oil-laden soils, at different geographical locations in KRI oilfields, Iraq. The identification was mainly based on macroscopic and microscopic examinations, but due to morphological similarities, which make the identification at species level doubtful in some cases, an attempt was made to use molecular techniques as well, as confirmatory/comparative analysis. The extracted DNA from hypha was used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, using specific internal transcribed spacer primer (ITS1/ITS2). PCR product sequencing analyses were compared with the other related sequences in GenBank (NCBI) for molecular evolutionary analyses. Results showed that; out of 68 screened fungal strains; only two genera (i.e. Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium sp.) were identified as the most potent hydrocarbon degrading fungi. DNA sequence analysis confirmed the validity of the species as; Aspergillus fumigatus-KU321562.1; A. flavus-MH270609.1; A. niger-MK452260.1 and Penicillium chrysogenum-MK696383.1.
Pages 104-112
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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mjsa.02.2023.98.103

ABSTRACT

FORMATION AND JUSTIFICATION OF THE PARAMETERS OF THE COMB FOR LAYING THE DRIP IRRIGATION HOSE AND SOWING SEEDS

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author:B P Shаymardanov

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.02.2023.98.103

The article presents the results of a study on the formation and justification of the parameters of a comb for laying a drip irrigation hose and sowing seeds. The features of the agrometeorological conditions of Uzbekistan during spring sowing are studied. Based on the variability of weather – precipitation, atmospheric air temperature and soil, the parameters of the ridge size are justified. The design of the machine for pre-sowing strip milling of the soil, the formation of the ridge, the laying of the drip irrigation hose, soil compaction, providing physical and mechanical soil of the ridge and the possibility of sowing seeds, is proposed. The design of a milling machine for strip processing with the formation of a ridge of a given shape, composition and parameters, a ridge sealer according to the required soil density has been developed. The main parameters of the comb shaper are substantiated.
Pages 98-103
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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mjsa.02.2023.88.97

ABSTRACT

CHARACTERIZATION OF QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE TRAITS FOR DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT AND CORRELATION STUDIES IN FOXTAIL MILLET (SETARIA ITALICA (L.) BEAUV.)

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author:Bimochana G.C., Ashmita Upadhyay, Prabesh Dhakal, Saujan Bashyal, Subash Adhikari, Prabin Kumar Poudel, Dipendra Kumar Ayer

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.02.2023.88.97

A higher level of variability can be found in Nepalese foxtail millet. To assess potential traits for further breeding activities and estimate the genetic diversity, phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation, heritability, genetic advance, and correlation coefficient for 15 different genotypes of foxtail millet, an experiment was conducted in alpha lattice design with 3 replications at Agronomy farm of IAAS, Lamjung, Nepal during March- June 2021. The analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the accessions for all the traits observed indicating the presence of a sufficient amount of variability. The value of the Shannon index ranged from 0.245 (plant anthocyanin coloration of the basal sheath) to 1.309(grain color) which indicates that the characters were more diverse for grain color while the value of evenness ranged from 0.22 (plant: anthocyanin coloration of the basal sheath) to 0.965(panicle density) indicating that the characters are more evenly distributed for the intensity of green leaf foliage. High PCV, high GCV, high heritability, and high genetic advance per mean were found for flag leaf length, peduncle length, no. of nodes, and yield per hectare. It indicates that these traits are less influenced by the environment and hence can be exploited by pure line and mass selection methods for crop improvement. Yield per hectare was positively and significantly correlated with grain per panicle (r=0.4**) and no. of nodes (r=0.39**). A strong positive correlation was observed between plant height and the number of nodes, flag leaf width, panicle length, and flag leaf length indicating their consideration for further breeding activities. The findings of the study can be crucial in identifying better-performing genotypes that can help develop improved varieties
Pages 88-97
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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mjsa.02.2023.79.87

ABSTRACT

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF COTTON JASSID AND THEIR RESPONSE AGAINST RELATIVELY NEWER PESTICIDES IN TWO COTTON VARIETIES OF BANGLADESH

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Shazzad Hossain, Md. Mamunur Rahman, Haider Iqbal Khan, Md. Ahsanul Haque, Rayhanur Jannat and Jahidul Hassan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.02.2023.79.87

Cotton, known as the “monarch of fibers” for meeting global textile demands, faces a decline in production due to natural threats like the cotton jassid insect. In Bangladesh, where this insect has caused production losses of 20% to 50%, government support for upland cotton cultivation is challenged. Two experiments at BSMRAU’s entomological field in 2021-2022 aimed to address this issue. The first confirmed the presence of the jassid through molecular analysis, while the second studied how different cotton varieties responded to biopesticides. Three different treatment combinations using different dosages of biorational insecticides on CB-12 and CB-14 cotton varieties were implied to see the interactions for revealing the biopesticidal effects on species cotton cultivars. The study identified the cotton jassid insect by analyzing its mitochondrial DNA, targeting cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 gene. The resulting nucleotide sequences were assigned accession numbers ranging from OR362770 to OR362772. A phylogenetic analysis further confirmed the insect’s identity as the cotton jassid, with strong support indicated by a 94% bootstrap value. This study delves into the impact of various treatments and different cotton plant varieties on chlorophyll and anthocyanin levels in parts of plants infested by the jassid. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated the significant role of two environmentally-friendly insecticides in controlling the cotton jassid across two distinct cotton varieties. Notably, there were significant differences observed in chlorophyll and anthocyanin levels among the treatments and cotton varieties. Variety CB-12 consistently exhibited higher levels of chlorophyll and anthocyanin, suggesting it may possess a greater resilience to pests. These findings underscore the importance of selecting appropriate cotton varieties and employing effective treatment strategies to manage jassid infestations and enhance crop productivity. This research provides valuable insights for the promotion of sustainable cotton cultivation for supporting textile industry in Bangladesh.
Pages 79-87
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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mjsa.02.2023.72.78

ABSTRACT

MACRONUTRIENTS USE EFFICIENCY IN SANDY SOIL CULTIVATED BY MAGNETICALLY TREATED SEEDS PRE-SOWING AND SPRAYED BY N-FERTILIZER DISSOLVED IN MAGNETIZED WATER

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Mohamed I. Mohaseb, Magdy M. Shahin, Alaa Eldeen A. Shaheen, Rama T. Rashad

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.02.2023.72.78

Purpose: is to enhance the nutrients use efficiency (NUE) along with the crop yield and quality by magnetic treatment (MT) of the groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds pre-sowing as well as the MT of water used to dissolve the nitrogen (N) fertilizer under sandy soil field conditions. Methods: Treatments were distributed in a split-plots design in triplicates. The control CL has received the recommended dose RD of the N-fertilizer while other treatments received a 50% of the RD applied to the surface soil 30 days after planting. The main factor (F1) was the N-application rates 1000, 2000, and 3000 mg kg-1 of urea dissolved in the magnetically treated water (MTW) then sprayed on the soil in the liquid form five times after planting. The sub-factor (F2) was the time of MT (15, 30, and 45 min) of the groundnut seeds exposed to a magnetic field MF 1.4 T intensity before planting. Results: The soil available N, P, K, Fe, Mn, and Zn (mg kg-1) were increased significantly by 34.8%, 23.0%, 3.49%, 9.4%, 22.2%, and 23.2% respectively, at P ≤ 0.05 by the 45 min MT and 3000 mg kg-1 N relative to its corresponding control (CL). The MT has increased the seeds yield (kg ha-1) significantly in the order 45 min >30 min >15 min for the N-rates 1000, 2000, and 3000 mg kg-1. At the 45-min time, it was increased by 17.5, 15.3, and 14.8% for the N-rates, respectively. Conclusions: The 2000 mg kg-1 rate with MT of seeds for 15 min can be recommended for an acceptable nutrients use efficiency (NUE).
Pages 72-78
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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mjsa.02.2023.65.71

ABSTRACT

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT NITROGEN DOSE ON GROWTH AND YIELD CHARACTERESTICS OF HYBRID MAIZE (Zea mays L.) VARIETIES AT SUNDARBAZAR, LAMJUNG

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Bhimsen Mahat, Bijaya Upadhayay, Ajay Poudel

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.02.2023.65.71

This research aimed to determine the best combination of nitrogen levels and hybrid varieties for optimal growth and yield of hybrid maize in Sundar bazar municipality, Lamjung, Nepal. The study used a two-factor factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 12 treatments and three replications. The treatments consisted of two hybrid maize varieties (Rampur Hybrid-10 and CP 808) and six different levels of nitrogen doses (control, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240 kg N ha-1). The results showed that the growth and yield parameters of hybrid maize varieties increased significantly with increasing nitrogen levels. The application of nitrogen at the rate of 240 kg N ha-1 produced the highest plant height, number of leaves, leaf area index (LAI), stem diameter, thousand grain test weight, grain per cob, grain yield, biological yield, and harvest index. Even a small difference of 30 kg of nitrogen ha-1 within a treatment showed a significant effect on the growth and yield parameters of hybrid maize. The control plot had the least growth and yield parameters. The hybrid maize variety CP 808 outperformed Rampur Hybrid-10 in terms of grain yield, thousand grain test weight, cob length, grain per cob, and LAI. In conclusion, this study suggests that cultivating hybrid maize variety CP-808 with the use of nitrogen at the rate of 240 kg ha-1 is optimal for maize production in Sundar bazar, Lamjung, and mid-hills of Nepal with similar altitude and climatic conditions. This information can assist maize farmers in achieving high yields and increasing their income.
Pages 65-71
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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mjsa.01.2023.58.64

ABSTRACT

RESPONSE OF FIVE SELECTED STORED LEGUME SEEDS SPECIES TO OVIPOSITION DETERRENT, OVICIDAL AND GRAIN PROTECTANT ACTIVITIES OF SOME BOTANICALS AGAINST Callosobruchus Maculatus (FAB.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Author: Augustine Matthew Adinoyi, Ofuya Thomas Inomisan, Idoko, Joy Ejemen, Adesina Jacobs Mobolade

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjsa.01.2023.58.64

Ten plant powders were tested at 2% on five legume seeds for their entomocidal effects against Callosobruchus maculatus. A completely randomized design (CRD) with five pairs of freshly emerged adult bruchids was used to treat 40g of disinfected legume seed types with 2g of the selected plant powders. An analysis of variance was performed on the data on the percentage of oviposition deterrence, hatchability, pest tolerance, and weight loss. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (87.02%) P. guineense (77.36%) and E. aromatica (73%) significantly deterred oviposition. The maximum percentage egg hatched was recorded in G. max (94.71%) and significantly lower on C. cajan with P. guineense (2.33). Ife Brown (20.83%) recorded significantly lowest tolerance compared to M. pruriens (99.17%). Percentage weight loss was significantly reduced in G. max irrespective of treatment and M. pruriens suffer no weight loss. Incorporation of Z. zanthoxyloides, P. guineense and E. aromatica powder proved to be promising biopesticide.
Pages 58-64
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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Posted by Natasha